Gnat Yura - Biography, Date of Birth, Place of Birth, Filmography (Read)
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Gnat Yura - Biography, Date of Birth, Place of Birth, Filmography
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Gnat Yura - biography, date of birth, place of birth, filmography, clips.
January 8, 1888, village Fedvary (Podlesnoe), Kirovograd region, Ukraine - January 18, 1966, Kiev.
Honored Artist of the Ukrainian SSR (1925).
People's Artist of the Ukrainian SSR.
People's Artist of the USSR (1940) .
Since 1907 - an actor at the theaters of Lvov, Moscow, Vinnitsa, since 1919 - an actor, director and director (until 1954) of the New Theater in Vinnitsa (later - the Ivan Franko Theater).
One of the greatest figures in the Ukrainian theater.
Since 1938 - a teacher at the Kiev Theater Institute named after I.K. Karpenko-Kary, professor (1946).
In cinema - since 1935 (first role - Sidorenko in the film "Prometheus").
After graduating from the zemstvo school in 1898, Gnat Yura entered the notary's office. It was during this period that the first meeting with the theater took place at Gerhart Hauptmann's play "Poor Heinrich". The youthful shock of what he saw makes Hauptmann a favorite playwright for all life and leads to an amateur circle. In the same Elisavetgrad, young Yura meets and attends performances of the leading figures of the Ukrainian stage: Maria Zankovetskaya, Ivan Karpenko-Kary, Nikolai Sadovsky, Afanasy Saksagansky. The mobile theater under the direction of Pavel Gaideburov and Vera Komissarzhevskaya's sister Nadezhda Skarskaya opens him another direction in art, introduces Anton Chekhov, Sophocles, William Shakespeare, Friedrich Schiller, Jean-Baptiste Moliere, George Byron, Heinrich Ibsen Schou, Bernardlinck to the drama. ..
Fate brings together the outstanding tragedian Pavel Nikolaevich Orlenev, who by that time was recognized in Europe and America, was considered the unsurpassed Hamlet and Lorenzaccio of Alfred de Musset ...
In 1907 S. Maksimovich invited 19-year-old Gnat Yura to his troupe. It was here that he met the second, creative brother-in-law who, in the words of Ignat Yura himself, "played an extraordinary role in my life for many years" - Semyon Semdor.
1914 was a fateful year for him. Semyon Semdor called Yura to Lvov, where he worked at the Russian Talk theater. Gnat Yura began to be friends with Les Kurbas!
Gnat Yura, Les Kurbas and Semyon Semdor decide to create a new theater.
At grandfather Les Kurbas's farm, gambling dreamers are developing a program for a new theater: "A group of the best artists of the Galician Regional Ukrainian Theater in Lvov ... having thought over and weighed the position of the modern Ukrainian theater, they came to the conclusion that the establishment of an exemplary Ukrainian theater, a repertoire which would not be limited to the plays of the old Ukrainian way of life, but completely destroying the old gorilko-hopak ballast, staged an artistically new and classical repertoire, no matter what language it was originally written ... we want to play Shakespeare, Ibsen, Schiller, and Shevchenko in Ukrainian , Lesya Ukrainka, Olesya ... ".
But the dreams came true only in 1916. Already in the first seasons of the "Young Theater" Gnat Yura staged productions: "Doctor Kerzhentsov" by Leonid Andreev (where the director was both a translator and a leading actor); together with Les Kurbas he turned to Olesya's dramatic sketches, an attempt to create "a theater of mood, semitones, hints, psychological nuances"; "The Flooded Bell" by Gerhart Hauptmann. Here there was a fusion of the psychological play of real characters with the theatricality of fantastic characters. "Candida" by Bernard Shaw - director's translation again. In 1919, an exacerbation of internal disagreements began, but the split did not formally take place - the very events of that life led to the fact that the actors diverged in different directions. With the establishment of Soviet power in Kiev, the collective "
Let's return to Vinnitsa during the first years of the newly formed Ivan Franko Theater. "We are looking for new paths in art ... It is long time ago to break with the dusty routine of the so-called everyday theater. We will not fight rotten traditions - they will die a natural death, as powder is already pouring out of them." These words were spoken by the "apologist" of the everyday theater Gnat Yura in 1922. And this was not just a slogan. He really opened the Ukrainian theater to an unknown drama. For the sake of fairness, I note that part of the repertoire has already been tested at the Young Theater. And yet, only V. Vinnichenko's plays were staged seven in a year! G.P. Jura again turns to his beloved Gerhart Hauptmann and Heinrich Ibsen. In memory of his art teacher Pavel Orlenev, he puts on "Lorenzaccio" de Musset and "Monna Bath" M. Maeterlinck, "The Forest Song" and "The Fireplace Owner" by Lesya Ukrainka, makes several editions of "The Inspector" by N.V. Gogol, "The Marriage of Figaro" by P. Beaumarchais, "The Duchess of Padua" by Oscar Wilde ... Already in his own theater, he continues those searches for dramaturgy, new theatrical ideas that he dreamed of with Les Kurbas on his grandfather's farm.
Gnat Petrovich created his theater in the most difficult wandering conditions, without an appropriate material base, brought up a qualitatively new generation of artists, was engaged in educational activities in numerous cities of Ukraine: Vinnitsa, Cherkassy, ??Donbass, Poltava, Priluki. It was as if the Frankovites were being tested for endurance, and in spite of all the troubles of the everyday life, they lived as one - their own Theater.
From 1923 to 1926 Frankivans work in Kharkov, which by that time is the capital of Ukraine. In Kharkov, the theater celebrated its fifth anniversary ... "What is the Ivan Franko Theater now, is it an academic theater? No, in the understanding of ossified forms, this is not an academic theater. It is a theater that has absorbed all the assets of theatrical art and used them in its artistic work. But at the same time it is an experimental theater looking for new means of stage expression. " These were the words spoken by the free artist Ignat Yury. And as confirmation of them on the stage there were a relaxed, refined theatrical, experimental and shocking performance by Boris Glagolin.
In 1925, Yura with F. Barvinskaya and O. Vatulya went on a creative business trip to Germany and Czechoslovakia. Acquaintance with the Max Reingard Theater captivated his imagination for a long time, as well as the dream of staging a play by L. Prandello "Six Characters Looking for an Author". Later, he became friends with the reformer of the Polish theater Leon Schiller, a propagandist and follower of Gordon Craig ...
The era of creativity was ending. The era of all-Ukrainian theatrical disputes on the issues of creative experiments and searches in theatrical art began. Life has made a new circle.
In 1926 the Franko Theater was transferred to Kiev. Theaters were flooded with directives, artists became fighters on the ideological front. The names of playwrights with "decadent moods" gradually disappeared from the posters. They were replaced by proletarian writers with a clear party position: the Franco Theater has become a laboratory for modern Soviet drama.
In addition, without the knowledge of Gnat Petrovich, the governing bodies worked to strengthen the theater's personnel policy. Under the guise of a shortage of actors for crowd scenes, the theater was replenished with "actors" who monitored the ideological state from within. It is a well-known fact when one of these actors, quickly joining the collective and heading the local council, accused Gnat Petrovich of nationalism for his "erroneous" decision to include M. Staritsky's "Marusya Boguslavka" in the repertoire.
But the soul resisted. And then he resorted to bold experiments. One of such attempts was the staging of "The Brave Soldier Svejk" based on Jaroslav Hasek, in the genre of satirical grotesque. From 1928 to 1935 the performance has withstood over 400 shows. Here is what Gnat Petrovich himself writes about his hero: “I understood that Schweik is not a rebel and not even a Protestant ... nevertheless, he destroys this order with his ingenious idiocy ... his so-called idiocy is only a convention, only a mask wearing a clever and cunning face. "
At first glance, the subsequent years of the collective's activity are marked by a number of compromises, but at the same time, acting as a subtle theatrical strategist, Gnat Petrovich continues to collect the best acting forces. He takes many "Berezilivites" to the theater, possibly saving them: Vadim Meller, Les Dubovik, Boris Tyagn, Vladimir Sklyarenko, Boris Baloban. Even the strong-willed decision from above to appoint Maryan Krushelnitsky as the chief director in 1953 he took with dignity. Nowhere and never with a single word did Ignat Petrovich express his attitude to this fact, protecting the honor and dignity of his theater.
It is symbolic that one of the last performances by Gnat Petrovich on the Frankivsk stage was the play "Svichchine Vesіlla" by Ivan Kocherga. He believed that sooner or later the times of darkness and obscurantism, the hunt for free people would pass and the true light of the footlights would flash. Courageous experimenters will appear who will be able to bring our theater to the European level.
Buried G.P. Yura at the Baikovo cemetery in Kiev. His wife, actress Olga Rubchakivna-Yura (1903-1981), is buried next to him.
All Information About: Gnat Yura - Biography, Date of Birth, Place of Birth, Filmography. Author: Jane Watson